# What is CCM?

## Real-world problems and CCM as a model for emergent computation

The chemical casting model (CCM) is a
computational model for solving
difficult problems.
The aim of the research on CCM is to establish a method of solving
real-world problems, which are
complex and
open to the real world.
Because complete and global infomation is usually impossible to
obtain in real-world problem solving because of
``partiallily of
information,'' we study
local-information-based method.
Computation that is based on local
information and that causes non-local result, which may sometimes contain
unestimable phenomena, is called
emergent computation.
CCM is a stochastic model for emergent computation.

## CCM as local-information-based model

CCM has been developed for computation using only
local information.
However, if the information is too local, it is not possible to find
a solution, or to get into a globally stable state. Thus,
controlling locality
is important in local-information-based computation.
Locality can be controlled easily in CCM by
several methods: catalysts and
rule composition. This controllability
(or variability) of locality is an important feature of CCM.

## CCM as a production system with additional features

CCM is based on
a forward-chaining production
system, such as systems written in OPS5 [For 81].
However, CCM differs from conventional forward-chaining production
systems in several points: evaluation functions
called LODs and randomized reactions.

The static structure and
basic dynamics are explained.

## CCM, and chemical systems and pattern-oriented systems

Because of the above distinctive features, we believe that CCM is much
more similar and analogical to chemical reaction systems than conventional
production systems in AI. Thus, it is called *chemical*
casting model. Production systems in AI are completely
symbolic. However, CCM is more
pattern-oriented because it is
based on LODs that are numerical, and has
certain similarity to
neural systems. Because chemical reactions occur in
parallel, it is very natural to make reactions occur
asynchronously
in parallel in CCM,
and the parallelization is much easier in CCM
than in conventional production systems.

## References for CCM

A most recent (but unpublished) paper on CCM is
``Constraint Satisfaction by
Parallel Optimization of Local Evaluation Functions with Annealing,''
but probably the best paper currently available for CCM is
``Stochastic Problem
Solving by Local Computation based on Self-organization Paradigm''
(HICSS-27).

Y. Kanada
(yasusi @ kanadas.com)
Created: 11/21/95, Modified: 5/6/2002.